Literacy: Language Development


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When children have difficulty understanding others and expressing themselves, it is not surprising that psychosocial and emotional adjustment problems ensue. Conversely, a relatively large proportion of school-aged children who have psychosocial and emotional disorders often have problems with language and communication. Language impairments can be subtle and go undetected unless a formal assessment is done.

In another study, Evans4 found that many preschoolers described as shy, reticent or inhibited had language impairments that interfered with forming and maintaining friendships. Failure to identify and treat such problems can have serious consequences. Research Context Language development and impairment and their association with psychosocial and emotional development and disorder have been examined in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of community and clinic both speech-language clinic and mental- health clinic samples ranging from infancy through adolescence.

In these studies, aspects of language and skills with which language and communication are associated have been examined. Key Research Questions Key research questions include: 1 What is the pattern of development of communication and language in the first five years of life? Recent Research Results In the first five years of life, the evolution of communication can be divided into three periods. These early communicative behaviours are not intentional, but set the stage for later intentional communication. A major turning point is the appearance of joint attention,6 which involves infants coordinating visual attention with that of another person regarding objects and events.

Further, approximately half of preschool- and school-aged children referred to mental-health services or placed in special classes have language impairments or language-related learning disabilities. In infants, problems with emotion and behaviour regulation e. The question still remains as to whether there is something specific about language as a focus for study. On the one hand, language may be just one of a range of developmental functions caused by a common underlying factor. Communication begins in the very first days of life. Potential problems that begin in relationships with parents can ultimately spiral as children enter school and have difficulty learning and getting along with teachers and peers.

Even mild language impairments can have an impact on the course of development. Outcomes are worsened by the presence of co-occurring environmental stresses. Because language competence is critical for both school readiness and psychosocial and emotional adjustment, problems with language and communication can set a child on a maladaptive trajectory throughout life.

Implications for Policy and Services Starting from infancy, routine assessment of language and communication skills and provision of interventions are essential preventive undertakings. There has been a move away from one-to-one clinic-based therapy to a focus on functional language in naturalistic environments. Information on the nature of language impairments, and their impact on academic and psychosocial and emotional functioning, should be available to parents and be part of the curriculum for professionals working with children.

Cohen NJ. Language impairment and psychopathology in infants, children, and adolescents. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage; Language, achievement, and cognitive processing in psychiatrically disturbed children with previously identified and unsuspected language impairments. Compliance and comprehension in very young toddlers. Child Development ;61 6 Evans MA.

Reticent primary grade children and their more talkative peers: Verbal, nonverbal, and self concept characteristics. Journal of Educational Psychology ;88 4 Coordinating attention to people, objects, and language. Transitions in prelinguistic communication. Brookes Pub. Bakeman R, Adamson LB. Coordinating attention to people and objects in mother-infant and peer-infant interaction. Child Development ;55 4 Mundy P, Gomes A. Individual differences in joint attention skill development in the second year. Infant Behavior and Development ;21 3 Child Development ;62 6 Development and functional significance of private speech among attention-deficit hyperactivity disordered and normal boys.

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology ;19 3 Social problem solving in hyperactive-aggressive children: How and what they think in conditions of automatic and controlled processing. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology ;26 2 National strategic research plan for language and language impairments, balance and balance disorders, and voice and voice disorders. NIH Publication No. Wetherby A, Prizant B.

Theories of language development: Nativist, learning, interactionist - MCAT - Khan Academy

Communication and symbolic behavior scales developmental profile - preliminary normed edition. Infant communication and the mother-infant relationship: The importance of level of risk and construct measurement. Infant Mental Health Journal ;25 3 Physical aggression and expressive vocabulary in month-old twins.

Developmental Psychology ;39 2 Prevalence of speech and language disorders in 5-year-old kindergarten children in the Ottawa-Carleton region. Language, social cognitive processing, and behavioral characteristics of psychiatrically disturbed children with previously identified and unsuspected language impairments. Developmental language disorders. In: Howlin P, Udwin O, eds. Outcomes in neurodevelopmental and genetic disorders. Stattin H, Klackenberg-Larsson I. Early language and intelligence development and their relationship to future criminal behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology ; 3 Williams S, McGee R.

Reading in childhood and mental health in early adulthood. Language, learning, and behavior disorders: Developmental, biological, and clinical perspectives. Early developmental language delay: What, if anything, should the clinician do about it? Rutter M. Commentary: Causal processes leading to antisocial behavior.

Coster W, Cicchetti D. Research on the communicative development of maltreated children: Clinical implications. Topics in Language Disorders ;13 4 Hill EL. Non-specific nature of specific language impairment: A review of the literature with regard to concomitant motor impairments. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders ;36 2 Denckla MB. Biological correlates of learning and attention: What is relevant to learning disability and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder?

Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics ;17 2 Moffitt TE. The neuropsychology of conduct disorder. Development and psychopathology ;5 Halpern R. Early intervention for low-income children and families. Handbook of early childhood intervention. The effectiveness of early intervention for children with communication disorders. In: Guralnick MJ, ed. The effectiveness of early intervention. To cite this document: Cohen NJ. The impact of language development on the psychosocial and emotional development of young children. Both also focus on impairments in structural aspects of receptive and expressive language skills phonology, semantics, syntax, morphosyntax, narrative discourse, auditory verbal information processing and accord little attention to the outcome of impairments in pragmatic aspects the appropriate use of language within social, situational and communicative contexts.

Nonetheless, it is important to understand that speech and language impairments may also occur as secondary difficulties to a primary condition such as autism, hearing impairment, neurological impairment, general developmental difficulties, behavioural or emotional difficulties, psychosocial adversity e. Beitchman approaches the topic from the research context of his year prospective longitudinal epidemiological study of five-year-old English-speaking children from one geographic region of Canada. By contrast, Cohen situates the topic more broadly, calling upon evidence from national and international studies of clinical and epidemiological populations, using cross-sectional and longitudinal designs.

To have access to this article, contact us at cedje-ceecd umontreal. In addition, recent research highlights the increased risk of victimization e. Both Cohen and Beitchman conclude that the risk resides with language impairment with and without accompanying speech impairments , rather than with speech impairment per se. In contrast, recent evidence indicates that speech impairment may be a risk factor for phonological processing, phonological learning and literacy. The problem is that phonological processing skills may be overlooked and not investigated in the presence of severe articulatory problems without concurrent oral language impairments.

Cohen and Beitchman also conclude that preschool SLI is associated with poor academic functioning, but do not specify the nature of this problem. Robust evidence indicates that SLI is a major cause of problems in both reading particularly reading comprehension and written language. This issue, which remains unresolved and controversial,l0 has important implications for policy and service delivery perspectives and requires in-depth investigation.

Moreover, the conclusions are based on a non-systematic review of the literature. Importantly, however, the conclusions are largely consistent with those reported in recent meta-reviews. Moreover, both argue the need for professionals to educate parents about the significance of SLI and the need for intervention. In particular, Beitchman accords to speech and language pathologists the responsibility for educating the public and other professionals in this regard. There are several problems with these broad recommendations. First, a recent review concluded that there is insufficient evidence to warrant universal screening at this point in time.

Alternate approaches to universal screening might include screening populations at high risk for SLI or screening populations identified by parental concern about possible SLI or related socio-emotional or behavioural problems. Third, making speech and language pathologists responsible for educating the public and other professionals poses major challenges, the least of which is the inadequate supply of this category of professionals.

Language and phonological skills in children at high risk of reading difficulties. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry ;45 3 Hidden language impairments in children: parallels between poor reading comprehension and specific language impairment? Phonological awareness and literacy development in children with expressive phonological impairments. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research ;38 2 Written language as a window into residual language deficits: A study of children with persistent and residual speech and language impairments.

Cortex ;39 2 Educational consequences of developmental speech disorder: Key Stage I National Curriculum assessment results in English and mathematics. British Journal of Educational Psychology ;74 2 Nonword repetition as a behavioural marker for inherited language impairment: Evidence from a twin study.

Non-specific nature of specific language impairment: a review of the literature with regard to concomitant motor impairments. Speech and language therapy interventions for children with primary speech and language delay or disorder. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews ; 3.

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The feasibility of universal screening for primary speech and language delay: findings from a systematic review of the literature. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology ;42 3 Prevalence and natural history of primary speech and language delay: findings from a systematic review of the literature. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders ;35 2 Help-seeking for behavior problems by parents of preschool children: a community study.

To cite this document: Tannock R. Language development and literacy: Comments on Beitchman and Cohen. With respect to spoken language development, the preschool years represent a period of learning language. As children enter school, they are expected to use these newly developed language skills as tools for learning and increasingly for social negotiation. Subject Spoken language competence involves several systems. Children must master a system for representing the meaning of things in their world.

Children must also acquire a facility with the forms of language, ranging from the sound structure of words to the grammatical structure of sentences. Additionally, this knowledge must be joined with their social competence. Mastery of these skills, which occurs during the preschool years, will allow the child to function as a successful listener and speaker in many communication contexts. Much of this learning is accomplished without formal instruction, and what is known is largely tacit in nature. As preschoolers, children begin to develop an awareness of some of this knowledge.

This ability to think about the properties of words is called phonological processing. There exists a substantial literature showing that early reading development in alphabetic languages such as English is dependent upon the integrity of phonological processing abilities. It is common to differentiate between two main aspects of reading — word recognition and reading comprehension. Word recognition consists of knowing how a word is pronounced. Good readers can do this by using multiple cues, but importantly they are able to use the conventions concerning the relationship between letter sequences and their pronunciation decoding.

Decoding printed words, however, is not sufficient for reading competence. The reader also needs to be able to interpret the meanings of the printed text in a manner very similar to how utterances are interpreted when heard.

Theories of Literacy and Theories of Literacy Development | sitwe

The skills involved in this act of reading comprehension are very similar or the same as those used in listening comprehension. Children with poor listening and speaking skills are referred to as having a language impairment LI and most of them will also have poor phonological processing abilities. At school entry, these children may be viewed as being at risk for reading disorder RD. Reading disorder is customarily defined as poor reading achievement occurring after sufficient opportunity to learn to read. Thus, RD is often diagnosed after two or three years of reading instruction. Key Research Questions The prominent research questions have been concerned with the extent to which aspects of early language status are predictive of later reading and behaviour problems and what the possible bases might be for these relationships.

Specifically, two hypotheses have figured prominently in the literature. One hypothesis is that the associations between spoken language and later outcomes are causal. Alternatively, the association of language and reading problems with behaviour problems may rest on a common underlying condition such as a neuromaturational delay that results in poor achievement in both domains. Recent Research Results Several investigators have examined the reading and psychosocial outcomes of children with LI in the early school years.

Several studies have reported poorer reading achievement and higher rates of RD in children with language impairment. Several studies have shown elevated rates of behaviour problems among children with LI. These conclusions, however, fail to explain why behaviour problems seem to be reported in preschool children with LI. Conclusions The existence of a strong relationship between spoken language skills and subsequent reading and behaviour development is generally supported in the literature. This evidence comes principally from research done with children who have LI at school entry. The basis of the relationship between early spoken language and later reading development is generally thought to be causal in nature, such that spoken language skills are fundamental precursors to later successful reading.

This influence of language on reading primarily involves two aspects of language ability — phonological processing and listening comprehension. Children with limitations in phonological process are at risk for early decoding problems, which can then lead to problems of reading comprehension. Children with problems of listening comprehension are at risk for reading comprehension problems even if they can decode words.

The common profile of children with LI is that both aspects of language are impaired and thus the resulting reading problems encompass both aspects of reading decoding and comprehension. The basis of the relationship between spoken language and later behaviour problems is less clear.

The behaviour problems may arise from the spoken and written communication demands of the classroom. Thus, communication failure serves as a stressor and behaviour problems are maladaptive responses to this stressor. Alternatively, the spoken and written language impairment may have a shared underlying etiology with the behaviour problems. Implications The evidence is compelling that a foundation in spoken language competence is important for the successful achievement of academic and social competence. Children with poor language skills who are therefore at risk for reading and psychosocial problems can be identified efficiently at school entry.

Likewise, listening comprehension can be improved in the early school years. These methods focus on strengthening language skills. Additionally, intervention efforts need to consider approaches that provide adapted and supportive educational environments for these children to reduce the potential stressors that may result in maladaptive behaviours. In the future, research efforts focusing on the particular mechanisms that produce this complex of spoken, written and behaviour problems are also needed.

Classroom-based studies of how children respond to communication demands and failure would be particularly relevant. Prevalence of specific language impairment in kindergarten children. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research ;40 6 Unlocking learning disabilities: The neurological basis. Learning disabilities: Lifelong issues. Brooks Publishing; Commission on Emotional and Learning Disorders in Children. One million children: A national study of Canadian children with emotional and learning disorders. Toronto, Ontario: Leonard Crainford; The association of reading disability, behavioral disorders, and language impairment among second-grade children.

Preschoolers with language disorders: 10 years later. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research ;27 2 Bishop DV, Adams C. A prospective study of the relationship between specific language impairment, phonological disorders and reading retardation. Catts HW. The relationship between speech-language impairments and reading disabilities.

Early Literacy: Policy and Practice in the Preschool Years

A longitudinal study of children with developmental language delay at age 3: Later intelligence, reading and behavior problems. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology ;29 5 Annals of Dyslexia ; Stark RE, Tallal P. Language, speech, and reading disorders in children: neuropsychological studies. Boston, Mass: Little, Brown and Co. Estimating the risk of future reading difficulties in kindergarten children: A research-based model and its clinical implementation. Language Speech and Hearing Services in Schools ;32 1 Language basis of reading and reading disabilities: Evidence from a longitudinal investigation.

Scientific Studies of Reading ;3 4 Psychiatric risk in children with speech and language disorders. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology ;18 3 Behavioral characteristics. Language delay and hyperactivity in preschoolers: Evidence for a distinct subgroup of hyperactives. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry ;32 8 Linguistic impairment and psychiatric disorder: pathways to outcome. Behaviour problems and language abilities at three years and behavioural deviance at eight years.

Language, learning, and behavioral disturbances in childhood: A longitudinal perspective. The socioemotional behaviors of children with SLI: Social adaptation or social deviance? Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research ;41 3 To cite this document: Tomblin B. Previously, experts rarely viewed literacy as an essential aspect of healthy growth and development in young children. The current rate of reading problems among school children remains unacceptably high. Early education is the time in which young children develop skills, knowledge and interest in the code-based and meaning aspects of written and spoken language.

To access to this article, contact us at cedje-ceecd umontreal. My reading of their texts suggests that three important points require further elaboration: decoding precursors, the language-literacy relationship, and the role of temperament and motivation. First, the current cumulative research literature on early literacy development and its relationship to later reading outcomes identifies three unique predictors of reading competence: phonological processing, print knowledge and oral language.

Children will never be able to read to learn i. Children who enter beginning reading instruction with inadequate pre-literacy ability will be unable to keep pace in decoding instruction, which undermines the eventual transition to reading for meaning. Scholars increasingly view the integrative relationship between language and literacy as reciprocal. Once children begin to read, even at the most basic level, their reading of text becomes the greatest source of novel words and concepts, complex syntax and narrative structures, which then further propel their language development forward.

Tomblin notes the overlap among internalizing behaviours e. The role played by early motivation, self concept and temperament in pre-literacy development requires greater attention in general, particularly when we consider how to facilitate other internal competencies e. By seeking out literacy experiences on their own or in the context of interactions with others, children essentially implement their own pre-literacy interventions!

Implications for the Policy and Services Perspectives Current policy and service perspectives are derived from three unequivocal findings in the literature. First, children with an under-developed oral language base will exhibit great vulnerability for achieving reading competence, which in turn inhibits ongoing language development. Second, it is much more difficult to remediate reading problems than it is to prevent them. Third, it is possible to shift the odds towards better literacy outcomes for children with high-quality, intensive, systematic pre-literacy programs delivered to preschoolers and kindergarteners prior to the manifestation of reading problems.

Integrating policy, practice and research Significant gaps persist in integrating policy, practice and research and in conducting research that can be readily applied to real-world programs. Tomblin emphasizes the need for future research on the mechanisms that produce literacy problems for children with language difficulties.

What is currently needed is an increased focus on how best to facilitate linkages among policy, practice and research to ensure the effectiveness of real-world efforts to improve literacy outcomes for young children, particularly those who arrive in these programs with under-developed literacy and language skills. The extent to which such activities are effective for children with language weaknesses, have a longitudinal positive effect and can be integrated into existing interventions has yet to receive careful examination. Policy-makers, practitioners and researchers have rarely considered how the quality of adult-child interactions focused on literacy might matter, whether playing word games or reading books.

National Assessment of Education Progress. Accessed February 4, Oral language and code-related precursors to reading: Evidence from a longitudinal structural model. Acquisition of literacy: A longitudinal study of children in first and second grade. Journal of Educational Psychology ;78 4 Decoding, reading, and reading disability. Emergent literacy intervention for vulnerable preschoolers: Relative effects of two approaches.

American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology ;12 3 To cite this document Justice LM. The goal of this screening process is to guide decisions concerning the need for further evaluation and treatment, in order to prevent the development of more significant problems. Problems Early identification of language delay must resolve two fundamental problems. The first is the problem of obtaining valid information for individual children at an age when they are often noncompliant, especially those children with limited communication skills who are the primary focus.

Furthermore, the assessment technique must be cost-effective with respect to professional time, and broadly applicable for children across a range of social classes and language backgrounds, including bilingualism. The second problem is one of interpretation. Many children whose language is delayed at 24 or 30 months will catch up over the next few years, and do not warrant intervention. Research context The solution to the first problem above has been the revival of an older, but neglected technique: parent report.

Vocabulary checklists and related questions for parents have proven to be highly valid measures of early language development. First, what is a valid criterion for defining early language delay? Second, how much variability in outcome is there for early delay? Third, what other factors can add to prediction of outcome, and how should they be integrated?

Fourth, how do differences related to social class, gender, and ethnicity affect the identification process? And fifth, how should the process be modified for children acquiring two or more languages? Recent research results Toddlers who have not attained the expressive language skills exhibited by most children the same age can be identified as having slow expressive language development SELD. Children with SELD at age 2 are at two to five times higher risk for language impairment persisting into the late preschool to elementary school years.

Longitudinal studies of two-year-olds with SELD have examined a variety of potential predictor variables for persisting difficulties. Children from minority ethnic backgrounds had lower average scores when SES was controlled for in one study, raising similar questions about the validity of parent report tools in culturally diverse populations.

Research comparing outcomes for boys and girls with SELD is needed to address this question.

Early Literacy: Policy and Practice in the Preschool Years

Conclusions Young children with expressive language skills that are approximately below the 10th percentile are at much higher risk than peers for persisting language problems, even though there is a wide range of outcomes and many children with SELD at two years of age are in the average range by four years of age. A variety of additional variables are associated with persisting delays, and parental concern about possible speech-language problems is a key predictor of risk for language impairment.

Accessed November 3, Immediate referral to a speech-language pathologist is recommended for children with slow expressive language development if the parents are concerned that the child has possible speech-language problems or when there are additional risk factors. Children who speak languages other than English should be referred for evaluation if they are delayed in expressive vocabulary and onset of word combinations in their native language.

Collaborative efforts between practitioners and researchers on large scale screening programs that combine screenings with follow-up evaluations are needed to refine and validate models for predicting persisting language impairment for children with parent- reported SELD, using other information about the child and family. These efforts should also include work to adapt, implement and validate measures for children from homes in which languages other than English are spoken, and for children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds.

Outcomes of early language delay: I. Predicting persistent and transient language difficulties at 3 and 4 years. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research ;46 3 Dale PS. Parent report assessment of language and communication. Assessment of communication and language. Baltimore, MD: P. Variability in early communicative development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development ;59 5 Theme issue. The validity of a parent report measure of vocabulary and syntax at 24 months.

Journal of Speech and Hearing Research ;34 3 The validity of a parent report instrument of child language at twenty months.


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Journal of Child Language ;16 2 Baltimore, Md. Concurrent and predictive validity of parent reports of child language at ages 2 and 3 years. Child Development ;76 4 Language outcomes of 7-year-old children with or without a history of late language emergence at 24 months. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research ;51 2 Ellis E, Thal D. Early language delay and risk for language impairment. Perspectives on Language Learning and Education ;15 3 Recommending intervention for toddlers with specific language learning difficulties: We may not have all the answers, but we know a lot.

American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology ; Language development and literacy skills in late-talking toddlers with and without familial risk for dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia ;55 2 Improving the positive predictive value of screening for developmental language disorder. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research ;43 4 Junker D, Stockman I.

Expressive vocabulary of German-English bilingual toddlers. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology ;11 4 Lexical development in bilingual infants and toddlers: Comparison to monolingual norms. Language Learning ;43 1 Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research ;45 5 Patterson JL. Expressive vocabulary development and word combinations of Spanish-English bilingual toddlers.

Rescorla L, Achenbach T. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research ;45 4 Rescorla L, Alley A. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research ;44 2 Early identification of language delay. Subject This review describes parent-administered language intervention and its efficacy for children with receptive and expressive language disorders. In parent-administered intervention, parents become the primary intervention agents and learn how to facilitate language development in daily, naturalistic contexts.

Parent- administered intervention differs significantly from parent involvement, in which children receive direct intervention from the speech-language pathologist and parents play a secondary but supportive role e. Theoretically, most parent-administered language intervention programs adhere to social interactionist perspectives of language acquisition, which maintain that simplified, responsive language input provided by adults helps children make comparisons between non-linguistic and linguistic contexts and figure out the relationships among objects, actions, external events and words.

Responsive input strategies used in many well-known parent-administered language intervention programs include: a child-centred strategies e. These and other strategies are described further in Tannock and Girolametto. The child is not asked to imitate the target. Other programs may include instruction on how to elicit target goals directly by requesting imitation of the target behaviour or asking a question that elicits the goal.

Parent-administered intervention programs have been used with late-talking toddlers between 18 and 30 months,10,11 preschool-aged children with cognitive and developmental delays e. Down syndrome and preschool-aged children with receptive and expressive language disorders. Problems There are few well-designed studies that investigate the efficacy of parent-administered intervention and there are several concerns with the existing studies. First, the participants have generally been well-educated, middle-income parents who are English- speaking and highly motivated to participate in parent programs, raising the possibility of selection bias.

Second, the sample sizes in these studies have been small and the focus has been on short-term communication and language outcomes for the children. Finally, there is no research to demonstrate the efficacy of this approach for families from lower socio-economic backgrounds or families from different cultural groups for whom parent- child interactions may differ from the mainstream culture. Key Research Questions Key research questions include the following: 1 Does parent-administered intervention result in better outcomes for children? Recent Research Results Only experimental studies i.

Children with cognitive and developmental disorders Included in this group are two- to five-year-old children, with a variety of etiologies e. Down syndrome, chromosomal abnormalities, mild cerebral palsy, general delays in development , and language levels that range from pre-linguistic non-verbal communication to short sentences. Interventions that employed a general stimulation approach i. Late-talking toddlers These children are between 18 and 30 months of age, with non-verbal IQs in the normal range, no known sensory, motor or social-emotional problems, and are at the single-word stage of language development.

Focused stimulation of vocabulary targets was utilized in these studies.

Communicating: its importance in literacy development

All children had non-verbal IQs in the normal range and no known sensory or motor problems. These intervention studies included specific language targets for the children and demonstrated significant improvements in the acquisition of vocabulary,24 morphology i. Treatment comparisons Only two comparisons of parent-administered intervention and traditional, clinician- administered therapy have been conducted. Fey et al. Stewart, and Susan True offer a framework for enhancing social, emotional, and academic learning.

During three to five read alouds of a book, teachers engage children in building knowledge, vocabulary, phonological awareness, and concepts of print. Next up, readers go inside the lab school at Stepping Stones Museum for Children. Raynolds, Margie B. Gillis, Cristina Matos, and Kate Delli Carpini share the engaging, challenging activities they designed with and for preschoolers growing up in an under-resourced community.

Ogden, and Lindsey Moses explain how they helped children learn to lead and participate in meaningful discussions of literature. Rounding out the cluster are two articles on different aspects of learning to read. Valerie and Kathleen A. Simoneau describe a fun program for families. With game-like activities that require only basic household items, children in kindergarten through second grade practice reading sight words. Children feel successful as they begin reading, and teachers reserve instructional time for phonological awareness, phonics, vocabulary, and other essentials of early reading.

For guidance on submitting print-quality photos as well as details on permissions and licensing , see NAEYC. The more children know about language, the better equipped they are to succeed in reading and writing. Furthermore, the language children are exposed to at home and in school influences the development of their language comprehension.

This, in turn, influences their ability to develop reading and writing skills. Language development in the preschool years is relevant to the later teaching of reading and writing, especially in the primary grades. The level of language proficiency children bring to kindergarten is varied and depends on how much exposure to oral language they have had prior to entering school. All students, but especially those with limited language exposure, benefit from classroom instruction that is designed to accelerate language learning and growth in the use of academic language.

Academic language includes academic vocabulary more formal words typically associated with content learned in school and syntactic awareness the ability to recognize and use the correct arrangement of words in sentences typically found in the formal text used in school. If primary grade teachers are planful and purposeful about incorporating language-development activities, they can play an important role in closing the language gap before students move beyond grade 3.

It is important to teach students about receptive language.

Literacy: Language Development Literacy: Language Development
Literacy: Language Development Literacy: Language Development
Literacy: Language Development Literacy: Language Development
Literacy: Language Development Literacy: Language Development
Literacy: Language Development Literacy: Language Development
Literacy: Language Development Literacy: Language Development

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