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By the united will of Hikapoloa , or the trinity, light was brought into chaos. They next created the heavens, three in number, as their dwelling-places, and then the earth, sun, moon and stars. From their spittle they next created a host of angels to minister to their wants. Finally, man was created. His body was formed of red earth mingled with the spittle of Kane , and his head of whitish clay brought by Lono from the four quarters of the earth. The meaning of Adam is red, and it will be remarked that the Hawaiian Adam was made of earth of that color. He was made in the image of Kane , who breathed into his nostrils, and he became alive.

Afterwards, from one of his ribs, taken from his side while he slept, a woman was created. The man was called Kumu-honua , and the woman Ke-ola-ku-honua. The newly-created pair were placed in a beautiful paradise called Paliuli. Legends relate instances in which these waters were procured, [ 36 ] through the favor of the gods, for the restoration to life of distinguished mortals. As a specimen of the chants perpetuating these traditions and embellishing the plainer prose recitals, the following extract relating to the creation is given:.

Among the angels created was Kanaloa , the Hawaiian Lucifer, who incited a rebellion in heaven, with the results, strangely enough, related in immortal song by Milton. When man was created, Kanaloa demanded his adoration.

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This was refused by Kane , as angels and man were alike the creations of Deity, whereupon Kanaloa ambitiously resolved to create a man of his own who would worship him. Kane allowed him to proceed with his seditious work. He made a man in the exact image of Kumu-honua , but could not give it life. He breathed into its nostrils, but it would not rise; he called to it, but it would not speak. This exasperated him, and he determined to destroy the man made by the gods. Kumu-honua had three sons, the second of whom was slain by the first.

The name of the Hawaiian Cain is Laka. Ka Pili was the youngest son, and thirteen generations are named between him and the Deluge, whereas the Hebrew version records but ten on the corresponding line of Seth. The Hawaiian Noah is called Nuu. At the command of the gods he constructed an ark, and entered it with his wife and three sons, and a male and female of every breathing thing.

The waters came and covered the earth. When they subsided the gods entered the ark, which was resting on a mountain overlooking a beautiful valley, and commanded Nuu to go forth with all of life that the ark contained. In gratitude for his deliverance Nuu offered a sacrifice to the moon, mistaking it for Kane. Descending on a rainbow, that deity reproved his thoughtlessness, but left the bow as a perpetual token of his forgiveness. So was it with Abraham. Ku Pule established the practice of circumcision, and was the grandfather of Kini-lau-a-mano , whose twelve children became the founders of twelve tribes, from one of which—the Menehune —the Hawaiians are made to descend.

A story similar to that of Joseph is also given, and mention is made of the subsequent return of the Menehune people to the land set apart for their occupation by Kane. Two brothers led them over deserts and through waters, and after many tribulations they reached their destination. This would seem to imply that the Menehune people were one of the tribes of Israel; yet it is more probable that they had their origin in some one of the other twelveships into which the early Asiatic tribes were in many instances divided, and that the stories of Joseph and the Exodus became a part of their folk-lore through contact with other races.

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The genealogical line from the Hawaiian Adam to the grandson of Ku Pule —that is, until the time of Jacob—has been brought down through three distinct traditional channels. The agreement of the several versions is remarkable, but the one brought to the islands by the high-priest Paao in the eleventh [ 38 ] century, and retained by his ecclesiastical successors, is regarded as the most authentic. It was an heirloom of the priesthood, and was never communicated beyond the walls of the temples.

With the settlement of the Menehune people in the land set apart for them by Kane , the Hawaiian legends cease to remind us of the later history of the Hebrews. There the similarity of historic incident abruptly ends, and, with an uncertain stride of twelve or thirteen generations, the chiefly line is brought down to Wakea and his wife Papa , mythical rulers of superhuman attributes, who must have existed before the Polynesians left the Asiatic coast, although in some legends they are connected not only with the first settlement of the Hawaiian archipelago, but with the creation of its islands.

A few of the many legends relating to the creation and first settlement of the islands will be noted. One of them in substance is that Hawaii-loa , a distinguished chief, and fourth in generation from Kini-lau-a-mano , sailed westward, and, guided by the Pleiades, discovered the Hawaiian group. He gave to the largest island his own name, and to the others the names of his children.

Another tradition refers to Papa , the wife of Wakea , as a tabued descendant of Hawaii-loa , and superior in caste to her husband. Mutual jealousies embittered their lives and led to strange events. Wakea found favor with the beautiful Hina , and the island of Molokai was born of their embrace. In retaliation Papa smiled upon the warrior Lua , and the fruit of their meeting was the fair island of Oahu.

Hence the old names of Molokai-Hina and Oahu-a-Lua. Quite as fanciful a legend relates that an immense bird laid an egg on the waters of the ocean. It was hatched by the warm winds of the tropics, and the Hawaiian group came into being. Shortly after a man and woman, with a pair each of dogs, hogs and fowls, came in a canoe from Kahiki, landed on the eastern coast of Hawaii, and became the progenitors of the Hawaiian people. Fifty-six generations are mentioned from Wakea to the present ruling family. The legends of the twenty-nine generations covering the period between Wakea and Maweke—which brings the record down to the eleventh century, when the second migratory influx from the southern islands occurred—abound in [ 39 ] wars, rebellions and popular movements, in which giants, demi-gods, and even the gods themselves took part; and it was doubtless during that period that the idolatrous forms and practices of the Hawaiian religion, as it existed a century ago, were engrafted upon an older and simpler creed confined to the worship of the godhead.

When the high-priest Paao arrived with Pili he introduced some new gods while recognizing the old, strengthened and enlarged the scope of the tabu , and established an hereditary priesthood independent of, and second only in authority to, the supreme political head. Different grades of priests also came into existence, such as seers, prophets, astrologers and kahunas of various function, including the power of healing and destroying.

In fact, the priesthood embraced ten distinct grades or colleges, each possessing and exercising powers peculiar to it, and the mastery of all of them was one of the qualifications of the high-priesthood. The tutelar deity of the entire body was Uli. The form of the heiau , or temple, was changed by Paao and his successors, and the masses mingled less freely in the ceremonies of sacrifice and other forms of worship.

The high-priesthood became more mysterious and exclusive, and assumed prerogatives above the reach of royalty. The old Hawaiian trinity— Kane , Ku and Lono —remained the supreme gods of the pantheon, but Kanaloa , the spirit of evil, was accorded beneficent attributes and exalted among them. The regions of Po , or death, were presided over by Milu , a wicked king who once ruled on earth, while the spirits of favorite chiefs were conveyed by the divine messenger Kuahairo to the presence of Kaono-hio-kala , whose beatific abode was somewhere in the heavens.

Another belief was that the ruler of Po was Manua , and that Milu did not follow Akea , the first king of Hawaii, to that place, but dwelt in a region far westward and beneath the sea. Although significant of darkness, Po was not without light. Like Tartarus, it could be visited by favored mortals, and the dead were sometimes brought back from it to earth. Pele , the dreadful goddess of the volcanoes, with her malignant relatives, was added to the Hawaiian deities during the second influx from the south, and temples were erected to her worship all over the volcanic districts of Hawaii.

At that period [ 40 ] were also introduced Laamaomao , the god of the winds, the poison goddesses Kalaipahoa and Kapo , and many other deities. Heiaus were erected to the war-gods of the kings, and great sacrifices were frequently made to them, generally of human beings, preceding, during, and following campaigns and battles. Humbler temples were also maintained to fish, shark, lizard and other gods, where sacrifices of fish and fruits were offered.

To the superstitious masses the land abounded in gnomes and fairies, and the waters in nymphs and monsters, whose caprices are themes of a bountiful store of folk-lore. With almost every stream, gorge and headland is connected some supernatural story, and the bards and musicians of old earned an easy support by keeping alive these legends of the people.

To some supernatural powers were given, and malignant and beneficent spirits assumed human forms and flitted among the palms in the guise of birds. The people made their own household gods, and destroyed them when they failed to contribute to their success. For example, at Ninole, on the southeast coast of Hawaii, is a small beach called Kaloa, the stones of which, it was thought, propagated by contact with each other. From the large stones the people made gods to preside over their games. When a stone was selected for a god it was taken to the heiau , where certain ceremonies were performed over it.

It was then dressed and taken to witness some game or pastime. If the owner was successful it was accepted as a god; if unsuccessful more than once or twice, it was thrown away or wrought into an axe or adze. Sometimes a stone of each sex was selected, wrapped in kapa , and laid away.

In time a small pebble was found with them. It increased in size, and was finally taken to the heiau and formally made into a god. Such is the story that is still told. The people believed that the spirits of the departed continued to hover around their earthly homes, and the shades of their ancestors [ 41 ] were appealed to in prayer. The owl and a bird called the alae were regarded as gods, and scores of other deities, controlling the elements or presiding over the several industries and amusements of the masses, were recognized and placated with sacrifices when in unfavorable moods.

They had a god of the winds, of the husbandman, the warrior, the canoe-maker, the hula dancer, the distiller, the orator, the doctor and the sorcerer, and many gods of the sailor and the fisherman. The services of the high-priest did not extend to these popular deities on any of the islands of the group.

The heiaus over which he presided were dedicated either to the higher gods of the pantheon or to the war-god of the king or supreme chief. He was next to the king in authority, and always of distinguished blood. Surrounded by seers, prophets and assistants, and claiming to hold direct intercourse with the gods, he was consulted on all matters of state consequence, and the auguries of the temple were always accepted with respect and confidence. The high-priest sometimes had charge of the war-god of the king, and in such cases went with it to the field of battle.

Hua, one of the ancient kings of Maui, defied the priesthood and slew his high-priest. Wherever he traveled all vegetation perished, and he finally died of famine on Hawaii, and his bones were left to whiten in the sun. There were several classes of priests, or kahunas , beside those who were connected with the temples. They were seers, doctors and dealers in enchantment, and subsisted by preying upon the people through their superstitions. All physical illness was attributed either to the anger of the gods, witchcraft, or the prayers of a malignant kahuna.

The afflicted person usually sent for a kahuna , whose first business was to discover the cause of the malady through incantation. This ascertained, an effort was made to counteract the spells or prayers which were wearing away the life of the patient, and sometimes with so great success that the affliction was transferred to the party whose malice had invoked it. The belief that one person might be prayed to death by another was universal with the ancient Hawaiians, and not a few [ 42 ] of the race would turn pale to-day if told that one of priestly strain was earnestly praying for his death.

In praying a person to death it was essential that the kahuna should possess something closely connected with the person of the victim—a lock of his hair, a tooth, a nail-paring, or a small quantity of his spittle, for example; hence the office of spittoon-bearer to the ancient kings was entrusted only to chiefs of some rank, who might be expected to guard with care the royal expectoration.

The belief was general that the spirits of the dead might be seen and conversed with by the kilos , or sorcerers, and the spirits of the living, it was claimed, were sometimes invoked from their slumbering tabernacles by priests of exceptional sanctity. The spirit of the dead was called unihipili , while the disembodied and visible spirit of a living person was known as kahoaka. Of all the deities Pele was held in greatest dread on the island of Hawaii, where volcanic irruptions were frequent.

With her five brothers and eight sisters—all representing different elemental forces—she dwelt in state in the fiery abysses of the volcanoes, moving from one to another at her pleasure, and visiting with inundations of lava such districts as neglected to cast into the craters proper offerings of meats and fruits, or angered her in other respects. One of her forms was that of a beautiful woman, in which she sometimes sought human society, and numerous legends of her affairs of love have been preserved.

She was regarded as the special friend of Kamehameha I. The last public recognition of the powers of Pele occurred as late as on the island of Hawaii. The village of Hilo was threatened. A broad stream of lava from Mauna Loa, after a devastating journey of twenty-five miles or more, reached a point in its downward course within a mile or two of the bay of Hilo. Its movement was slow, like that of all lava-streams some distance from their source, but its steadily approaching line of fire rendered it almost certain that the village, and perhaps the harbor, of Hilo would be destroyed within a very few days.

Trenches were digged, walls were raised, and prayers were offered, but all to no purpose. Downward moved the awful avalanche of fire. Ruth, a surviving sister of the fourth and fifth Kamehamehas, [ 43 ] was then living in Honolulu. She was a proud, stern old chiefess, who thought too little of the whites to attempt to acquire their language. The danger threatening Hilo was reported to her. Ascending an elevation immediately back of the village, she caused to be erected there a rude altar, before which she made her supplications to Pele , with offerings fed to the front of the advancing lava.

This done, she descended the hill with confidence and returned to Honolulu. The stream of fire ceased to move, and to-day its glistening front stands like a wall around Hilo. Without discussing the cause—a natural one beyond a doubt—it may be remarked that the result has been something of a renewal with the natives of faith in the discarded gods of their fathers. All of the minor gods of the Hawaiians seem to have been independent and self-controlling.

It is not claimed that they derived their powers from, were directed by, or were responsible to the supreme godhead. Hence the mythology of the Polynesians, strong though it be in individual powers and personations of the forces and achievements of nature, presents itself to us in a fragmentary form, like an incongruous patchwork of two or more half-developed or half-forgotten religious systems. One of the most noted of the independent deities of the group was Kalaipahoa , the poison-goddess of Molokai.

Some centuries back she came to the islands, with two or three of her sisters, from an unknown land, and left her mark in many localities. She entered a grove of trees on the island of Molokai, and left in them a poison so intense that birds fell dead in flying over their branches. The king of the island [ 44 ] was advised by his high-priest to have a god hewn from one of the poisoned trees. Hundreds of his subjects perished in the undertaking, but the image was finally finished and presented to the king, wrapped in many folds of kapa.

It came down the generations an object of fear, and was finally seized by the first Kamehameha, and at his death divided among his principal chiefs. Kuula was the principal god of the fishermen on all the islands of the group. Rude temples were erected to him on the shores of favorite fishing-grounds, and the first fish of every catch was his due.

His wife was Hina , and she was appealed to when her husband withheld his favors. Laeapua and Kaneapua were gods worshipped by the fishermen of Lanai, and other fish-gods were elsewhere recognized. There were a number of shark and lizard gods. They were powerful and malignant, and greatly feared by the classes who frequented the sea. Heiaus were erected to them on promontories overlooking the ocean, and the offerings to them of fish and fruits were always liberal. They assumed the forms of gigantic sharks and lizards, and not unfrequently lashed the waters into fury and destroyed canoes.

Moaalii was the great shark-god of Molokai and Oahu. Apukohai and Uhumakaikai were the evil gods infesting the waters of Kauai. Lonoakihi was the eel-god of all the islands, and Ukanipo was the shark-god of Hawaii. Among the celebrated war-gods of the kings of the group was that of Kamehameha I. It was called Kaili , or Ku-kaili-moku , and accompanied the great chief in all of his important battles. It had been the war-god of the Hawaiian kings for many generations, and was given in charge of Kamehameha by his royal uncle, Kalauiopuu.

It was a small wooden image, roughly carved, and adorned with a head-dress of yellow feathers. It is said that at times, in the heat of battle, it uttered cries which were heard above the clash of arms. It is not known what became of the image after the death of Kamehameha. The public heiaus , or temples, of the Hawaiians were usually walled enclosures of from one to five acres, and generally irregular in form. The walls were frequently ten feet in thickness and twenty feet in height, and the material used, was unhewn [ 45 ] stone, without mortar or cement.

They narrowed slightly from the base upward, and were sometimes capped with hewn slabs of coral or other rock not too firm in texture to be worked with tools of stone. Within this enclosure was an inner stone or wooden temple of small dimensions, called the luakina , or house of sacrifice, and in front of the entrance to it stood the lele , or altar, consisting of a raised platform of stone. The inner temple was sacred to the priests.

Within it stood the anu , a small wicker enclosure, from which issued the oracles of the kaulas , or prophets, and around the walls were ranged charms and gods of especial sanctity. Beside the entrance to this sacred apartment were images of the principal gods, and the outer and inner walls were surmounted by lines of stone and wooden idols. The enclosure contained other buildings for the accommodation of the high-priest and his assistants; also a house for the governing chief or king, some distance removed from the domiciles of the priest.

It was used temporarily by him when on a visit of consultation to the temple, or as a place of refuge in a time of danger. On each side of the entrance to the outer enclosure was a tabu staff, or elevated cross, and near it was a small walled structure in which were slain the victims for the altar. When an augury was required by the king he frequently visited the heiau in person and propounded his questions to the kaulas. If the answers from the anu were vague and unsatisfactory, other methods of divination were resorted to, such as the opening of pigs and fowls, the shapes of the clouds, the flights of birds, etc.

After prayers by the priest the animals were killed, and auguries were gathered from the manner in which they expired, the appearance of the intestines—which were supposed to be the seat of thought—and other signs. Sometimes the spleens of swine were removed, if auguries of war were required, and held above the heads of the priests while prayers were offered.

Before engaging in war or any other important enterprise attended by doubt or danger, human and other sacrifices were made, of which there were fifteen different kinds, and the first prisoners taken in battle were reserved for the altar. The priests named the number of men required for sacrifice, and the king [ 46 ] provided them, sometimes from prisoners and malefactors, and sometimes from promiscuous drafts along the highways. The victims were slain with clubs without the temple walls, and their bodies, with other offerings, were laid upon the altar to decay.

When the king or other high chief made a special offering of an enemy, the left eye of the victim, after the body had been brought to the altar, was removed and handed to him by the officiating priest. After making a semblance of eating it the chief tossed it upon the altar. During the construction of heiaus human sacrifices were usually offered as the work progressed, and when completed they were dedicated with great pomp and solemnity, and the altars were sometimes heaped with human bodies.

In dedicating ordinary temples the kaiopokeo prayer was employed; but in consecrating heiaus of the first class the kuawili invocation was recited, a prayer continuing from sunrise to sunset. Oil and holy water were sprinkled upon the altars and sacred vessels, and the services were under the direction of the high-priest, and generally in the presence of the governing chief. The ordinary services in the temples consisted of offerings of fruits and meats, and of chants, prayers and responses, in which the people sometimes joined.

Women did not participate in the ceremonies of the temples, but the exclusion found ample compensation in their exemption from sacrifice when human bodies were required. Temples of refuge, called puhonuas , were maintained on Hawaii, and possibly on Lanai and Oahu in the remote past; but concerning the latter there is some doubt. One of the puhonuas on Hawaii was at Honaunau, near the sacred burial-place of Hale-o-Keawe , and the other at Waipio, connected with the great heiau of Paa-kalani.

Their gates were always open, and priests guarded their entrances. Any one who entered their enclosures for protection, whether chief or slave, whether escaping criminal or warrior in retreat, was safe from molestation, even though the king pursued. These places of refuge, with the right of circumcision, which existed until after the death of the first Kamehameha, suggest a Polynesian contact with the descendants of Abraham far back in the past, if not a kinship with one of the scattered tribes of Israel.

In further evidence of the wanderings of the early Polynesians [ 47 ] in western and southern Asia, and of their intercourse with the continental races, it may be mentioned that a disposition toward phallic worship, attested by tradition and existing symbols, followed them far out into the Pacific; and that connected with their story of the creation, so closely resembling the Hebrew version, is the Buddhist claim of previous creations which either ran their course or were destroyed by an offended godhead.

Nor is Hawaiian tradition content with the mere advancement of the theory of successive creations. It makes specific reference to a creation next preceding that of their Ku-mu-honua , or Adam, and gives the names of the man and woman created and destroyed. They were Wela-ahi-lani and Owe. It has been mentioned that the birds pueo and alae were sacred and sometimes worshipped. Among the sacred fish were the aku and opelu.

How they became so is told in a legend relating to the high-priest Paao, who migrated to the islands in the eleventh century and induced Pili to follow him. Before visiting Hawaii, Paao lived near his brother, probably on the island of Samoa. Both were priests and well skilled in sorcery and divination. The name of the brother was Lonopele. Both were affluent and greatly respected. One season, when the fruits were ripening, Lonopele discovered that some one was surreptitiously gathering them in the night-time, and accused one of the sons of Paao of stealing them.

Indignant at the charge, and discerning no better way of disproving it, Paao killed and opened his son, and showed his brother that there was no fruit in the stomach of the boy. Grieved at the death of his son, and holding his brother accountable for it, Paao concluded to emigrate to some other land, and built strong canoes for that purpose.

About the time they were completed a son of Lonopele chanced to be in the neighborhood, and Paao, remembering the death of his own son, ordered the boy to be killed. Lonopele charged his brother with the murder. Paao did not deny it, and Lonopele ordered him to leave the island. To avoid further trouble Paao set sail at once with a party consisting of thirty-eight persons.

One tradition says Pili was of the [ 48 ] party; but he must have left Samoa some years later, as Paao sent or went for him after reaching Hawaii. As the canoes were moving from the shore several prophets, standing on the cliffs above, expressed a desire to join the party. Finally Makuakaumana, a prophet of genuine inspiration, who was to have accompanied the expedition, reached the shore and discovered the canoes of Paao far out on the ocean.

Raising his voice, he hailed Paao and asked that a canoe might be sent back for him. There is room for you, but if you would go with us you must fly to our canoes. Observing the canoes of Paao as they were disappearing in the distance, Lonopele sent a violent storm to destroy them; but the strong fish Aku assisted in propelling the canoes against the storm, and the mighty fish Opelu swam around them and broke the waves with his body. The malignant brother then sent the great bird Kihahakaiwainapali to vomit over the canoes and sink them; but they were hastily covered with mats, and thus escaped destruction.

After a long voyage Paao landed in Puna, on the coast of Hawaii.

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Thenceforth the aku and opelu were held sacred by Paao and his descendants. Following is a list of the supreme and principal elemental, industrial and tutelar deities of the Hawaiian group:. Previous to the eleventh century the several habitable islands of the Hawaiian group were governed by one or more independent chiefs, as already stated. After the migratory influx of that period, however, and the settlement on the islands of a number of warlike southern chiefs and their followers, the independent chiefs began to unite for mutual protection.

This involved the necessity of a supreme head, which was usually found in the chief conceded to be the most powerful; and thus alii-nuis , mois and kings sprang into existence. So far as tradition extends, however, certain lines, such as the Maweke, Pili and Paumakua families, were always considered to be of supreme blood. They came to the islands as chiefs of distinguished lineage, and so remained. Gradually the powers of the mois and ruling chiefs were enlarged, until at length they claimed almost everything. Then the chiefs held their possessions in fief to the moi , and forfeited them by rebellion.

In time the king became absolute master of the most of the soil over which he ruled, and assumed tabu rights which rendered his person sacred and his prerogatives more secure. All he acquired by conquest was his, and by partitioning the lands among his titled friends he secured the support necessary to his maintenance in power. Certain lands were inalienable both in chiefly families and the priesthood; they were made so by early sovereign decrees, which continued to be respected; but with each succeeding king important land changes usually occurred. Although the king maintained fish-ponds and cultivated lands of his own, he was largely supported by his subject chiefs.

They were expected to contribute to him whatever was demanded either of food, raiment, houses, canoes, weapons or labor, and in turn they took such portions of the products of their tenants as their necessities required. The ili was the smallest political division; next above it was the ahapuaa , which paid a nominal or special tax of one hog monthly to the king; next the okana , embracing several ahapuaas ; and finally the moku , or district, or island.

The laboring classes possessed no realty of their own, nor could they anywhere escape the claim or jurisdiction of a chief [ 52 ] or landlord. They owed military and other personal service to their respective chiefs, and the chiefs owed theirs to the king. If required, all were expected to respond to a call to the field, fully armed and prepared for battle.

Caste rules of dress, ornamentation and social forms were rigidly enforced. The entire people were divided into four general classes: first, the alii , or chiefly families, of various grades and prerogatives; second, the kahunas , embracing priests, prophets, doctors, diviners and astrologers; third, the kanaka-wale , or free private citizens; and, fourth, the kauwa-maoli , or slaves, either captured in war or born of slave parents. The laws were few and simple, and the most of them referred to the rights and prerogatives of the king, priesthood and nobility.

Property disputes of the masses were settled by their chiefs, and other grievances were in most instances left to private redress, which frequently and very naturally resulted in prolonged and fatal family feuds, in the end requiring chiefly and sometimes royal intervention. This, in brief and very general terms, was the prevailing character of the government and land tenure throughout the several islands of the group until after the death of Kamehameha I.

The leading chiefs and high-priesthood claimed a lineage distinct from that of the masses, and traced their ancestry back to Kumuhonua , the Polynesian Adam. The iku-pau , a sacred class of the supreme priesthood, assumed to be the direct descendants from the godhead, while the iku-nuu were a collateral branch of the sacred and royal strain, and possessed only temporal powers. It was thus that one of the families of the Hawaiian priesthood, in charge of the verbal genealogical records, exalted itself in sanctity above the political rulers. Proud of their lineage, to guard against imposture and keep their blood uncorrupted, the chiefs allowed their claims to family distinction to be passed upon by a college of heraldry, established by an early moi of Maui.

Reciting their genealogies before the college, composed of aliis of accepted rank, and receiving the recognition of the council, chiefs were then regarded as members of the grade of aha-alii , or chiefs of admitted and irrevocable rank. The chiefs inherited their titles and tabu privileges quite as frequently through the rank of one parent as of the other.

As Hawaiian women of distinction usually had more than one husband, and the chiefs were seldom content with a single wife, the difficulty of determining the rights and ranks of their children was by no means easy; but the averment of the mother was generally accepted as conclusive and sufficient evidence in that regard.

For political purposes marriage alliances were common between the royal and chiefly families of the several islands, and thus in time the superior nobility of the entire group became connected by ties of blood. The political or principal wife of a king or distinguished chief was usually of a rank equal to that of her husband, and their marriage was proclaimed by heralds and celebrated with befitting ceremonies. Other wives were taken by simple agreement, and without ceremony or public announcement.

Very much in the same manner the masses entered into their marriage unions. With the latter, however, polygamy was not common. When husband and wife separated, as they frequently did, each was at liberty to select another partner. The political wife of a chief was called wahine-hoao ; the others, haia-wahine , or concubine. In the royal families, to subserve purposes of state, father and daughter, brother and sister, and uncle and niece frequently united as man and wife.

The children of such unions were esteemed of the highest rank, and, strange to say, no mental or physical deterioration seemed to result from these incestuous relations, for all through the past the mois and nobles of the group were noted for their gigantic proportions. There were five or more grades of chiefs connected with the royal lines. First in order, and the most sacred, was the alii-niaupio the offspring of a prince with his own sister ; next, the alii-pio the offspring of a prince with his own niece ; next, the alii-naha the offspring of a prince or king with his own daughter ; next, the alii-wohi the offspring of either of the foregoing with another chiefly branch ; and next, the lo-alii chiefs of royal blood.

Any of these might be either male or female.

To these grades of chiefs distinct personal tabus or prerogatives were attached, such as the tabu-moe , tabu-wela , tabu-hoano and tabu-wohi. These tabus could be given or bequeathed to others [ 54 ] by their possessors, but could not be multiplied by transmission. The meles , or ancestral chants of a family, passed in succession to the legal representatives, and became exclusively theirs; but the government, tabus and household gods of the king were subject to his disposal as he willed, either at his death or before it.

The child of a tabu chief, born of a mother of lower rank, could not, according to custom, assume the tabu privileges of his father, although in some instances in the past they were made to inure to such offspring, notably in the case of Umi, King of Hawaii. Before an alii-niaupio , clothed with the supreme function of the tabu-moe , all, with the exception of tabu chiefs, were compelled to prostrate themselves. When he appeared or was approached his rank was announced by an attendant, and all not exempt from the homage were required to drop with their faces to the earth.

The exemptions were the alii-pio , the alii-naha , the alii-wohi and the lo-alii. They, and they alone, were permitted to stand in the presence of a niaupio chief. An alii-pio was also a sacred chief, so much so that he conversed with others only in the night-time, and on chiefesses of that rank the sun was not allowed to shine.

The kings lived in affluence in large mansions of wood or stone, in the midst of walled grounds adorned with fruit and shade trees and other attractive forms of vegetation. The grounds also contained many other smaller buildings for the accommodation of guests, retainers, attendants, servants and guards. They were attended by their high-priests, civil and military advisers, and a retinue of favorite chiefs, and spent their time, when not employed in war or affairs of state, in indolent and dignified repose. The personal attendants of an ancient Hawaiian king were all of noble blood, and each had his specified duty.

They were known as kahu-alii , or guardians of the person of the king. They consisted of the iwikuamoo , or rubber of the person; the ipukuha , or spittoon-bearer; the paakahili , or kahili -bearer; the kiaipoo , or sleep-watcher; and the aipuupuu , or steward. Other inferior chiefs, called puuku , with messengers, spies, executioners, prophets, astrologers, poets, historians, musicians and dancers, were among his retainers. Connected with the palace was an apartment used as a heiau , or chapel, which was sometimes in charge of the high-priest.

During festival seasons brilliant feasts, tournaments and hula and musical entertainments were given in the royal grounds, and the court was splendid in displays of flowers, feathers and other gaudy trappings. The king not unfrequently took part in the manly games and exercises of the chiefs, and sometimes complimented the hula dancers and musicians by joining in their performances.

To render the kings and higher nobility still more exclusive, they had a court language which was understood only by themselves, and which was changed in part from time to time as its expressions found interpretation beyond the royal circle. Some portions of this court language have been preserved. All implements of war or industry known to the early Hawaiians were made either of wood, stone, or bone, as the islands are destitute of metals; but with these rude helps they laid up hewn-stone walls, felled trees, made canoes and barges, manufactured cloths and cordage, fashioned weapons, constructed dwellings and temples, roads and fish-ponds, and tilled the soil.

They had axes, adzes and hammers of stone, spades of wood, knives of flint and ivory, needles of thorn and bone, and spears and daggers of hardened wood. They wove mats for sails and other purposes, and from the inner bark of the paper mulberry-tree beat out a fine, thin cloth called kapa , which they ornamented with colors and figures.

Their food was the flesh of swine, dogs and fowls; fish, and almost everything living in the sea; taro , sweet potatoes and yams, and fruits, berries and edible sea-weed of various kinds. Poi , the favorite food of all classes, was a slightly fermented paste made of cooked and pounded taro , a large bulbous root, in taste resembling an Indian turnip. They made a stupefying beverage by chewing the awa root, and from the sweet root of the ti plant fermented an intoxicating drink.

The soft parts of the sugar-cane were eaten, but, with the exception of the manufacture of a beer called uiuia , no other use seems to have been made of it. Their food, wrapped in ti leaves, was usually cooked in heated and covered pits in the earth. Their household vessels were shells, gourd calabashes of various shapes and sizes, and platters and other containers made of wood. The dress of the ancient Hawaiian was scant, simple and cool. The principal, and generally the only, garment of the male was the maro, a narrow cloth fastened around the loins. To this was sometimes added, among the masses, a kihei , or cloth thrown loosely over the shoulders.

The females wore a pau , or skirt of invariably five thicknesses of kapa , fastened around the waist and extending to the knees. When the weather was cool a short mantle was sometimes added. Ordinarily the heads of both sexes were without coverings, and in rare instances they wore kamaas , or sandals of ti or pandanus leaves.

With the maro , which was common to the males of all ranks, the king on state occasions wore the royal mamo , a mantle reaching to the ankles, and made of the yellow feathers of a little sea-bird called the mamo. When it is mentioned that but a single yellow feather is found under each wing of the mamo , and that tens of thousands, perhaps, entered into the fabrication of a single mantle, some idea of the value of such a garment may be gathered.

A few of these royal cloaks are still in existence, one of which was worn by King Kalakaua during the ceremonies of his late coronation. Pure yellow was the royal color. The shorter capes or mantles of the chiefs were of yellow feathers mixed with red. The color of the priests and gods was red. The ornaments of the nobility consisted of head-dresses of feathers, palaoas , or charms of bone suspended from the neck, and necklaces and bracelets of shells, teeth and other materials. Many of them were tattooed on the face, thighs and breast, but the practice was not universal.

Flowers were in general use as ornaments, and at feasts, festivals and other gatherings garlands of fragrant leaves and blossoms crowned the heads and encircled the necks of all. This is among the beautiful customs still retained by the Hawaiians. The dwellings of the masses were constructed of upright posts planted in the ground, with cross-beams and rafters, and roofs and sides of woven twigs and branches thatched with leaves. The houses of the nobility were larger, stronger and more pretentious, and were frequently surrounded by broad verandas.

It was a custom to locate dwellings so that the main entrance would face the east, the home of Kane. The opposite entrance looked toward Kahiki, the land from which Wakea came. The poorer classes followed these regulations so far as their means would admit, but screens usually took the place of separate dwellings or definite apartments. When war was declared or invasion threatened, messengers, called lunapais , were despatched by the king to his subject chiefs, who promptly responded in warriors, canoes, or whatever else was demanded.

A regular line-of-battle consisted of a centre and right and left wings, and marked military genius was sometimes displayed in the handling of armies. Sea-battles, where hundreds, sometimes thousands, of war-canoes met in hostile shock, were common, and usually resulted in great loss of life.

Truces and terms of peace were ordinarily respected, but few prisoners were spared except for sacrifice. The weapons of the islanders were spears about twenty feet in length, javelins, war-clubs, stone axes, rude halberds, knives, daggers and slings. The slings were made either of cocoa fibre or human hair. The stones thrown were sometimes a pound or more in weight, and were delivered with great force and accuracy. The spears were sometimes thrown, while the javelins were reserved for closer encounter.

Shields were unknown. Hostile missiles were either dodged, caught in the hands, or dexterously warded. The chiefs frequently wore feather helmets in battle, but the person was without protection. The athletic sports and games of the people were numerous. Rolling round stone disks and throwing darts along a prepared channel was a favorite sport; but the most exciting was the holua contest, in which two or more might engage.

On long, light and narrow sledges the contestants, lying prone, dashed down long and steep declivities, the victory being with the one who first reached the bottom.

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The goddess Pele enjoyed the game, and frequently engaged in it. But she was a dangerous contestant. On being beaten by Kahavari, a chief of Puna, she drove him from the district with a stream of lava. Sham battles and spear and stone throwing were also popular exercises.

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Among the in-door games were konane , kilu , puhenehene , punipiki , and hiua. Konane resembled the English game of draughts. Puhenehene consisted of the adroit hiding by one of the players of a small object under one of several mats in the midst of the party of contestants, and the designation of its place of concealment by the others. Kilu was a game somewhat similar, accompanied by singing. These were the most ancient of Hawaiian household games. The musical instruments of the islanders were few and simple. They consisted of pahus , or drums, of various sizes; the ohe, a bamboo flute; the hokio , a rude clarionet; a nasal flageolet, and a reed instrument played by the aid of the voice.

To these were added, on special occasions, castanets and dry gourds containing pebbles, which were used to mark the time of chants and other music. They had many varieties of dances, or hulas , all of which were more or less graceful, and a few of which were coarse and licentious.

Bands of hula dancers, male and female, were among [ 59 ] the retainers of the mois and prominent chiefs, and their services were required on every festive occasion. The mourning customs of the people were peculiar.

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For days they wailed and feasted together over a dead relative or friend, frequently knocking out one or more teeth, shaving portions of their heads and beards, and tearing their flesh and clothes. But their wildest displays of grief were on the death of their kings and governing chiefs. During a royal mourning season, which sometimes continued for weeks, the people indulged in an unrestrained saturnalia of recklessness and license.

Every law was openly violated, every conceivable crime committed. The excuse was—and the authorities were compelled to accept it—that grief had temporarily unseated the popular reason, and they were not responsible for their misdemeanors. The masses buried their dead or deposited the bodies in caves, but the bones of the kings were otherwise disposed of.

There were royal burial-places—one at Honaunau, on the island of Hawaii, and another, called Iao, on Maui—and the tombs of many of the ancient mois and ruling chiefs were in one or the other of those sacred spots; but they probably contained but few royal bones. In the fear that the bones of the mois and distinguished chiefs might fall into the hands of their enemies and be used for fish-hooks, arrow-points for shooting mice, and other debasing purposes, they were usually destroyed or hidden. Some were weighted and thrown into the sea, and others, after the flesh had been removed from them and burned, were secreted in mountain caves.

Throughout these fables, the talking animals behave as humans unlike the Aesop model, in which animals behave as animals , and are used to invoke characters with stereotypical personalities. There is also a distinction between wild and domesticated animals. Some common stereotypes include:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For repetitive animal behaviors, see Stereotypy non-human. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.

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Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Accessed 17 September The Life of Apollonius of Tyan , 5. Translated by F. Bats in Agriculture. A Ministry of Agriculture Publication. Online extra. National Geographic. Retrieved April 30, Retrieved Journal of Molecular Evolution. Systematic Biology. El Comercio. Archived from the original on January 27, Retrieved 19 March The Guardian.

Retrieved 18 March New York: About. Retrieved 26 April Archived from the original on October 5, Retrieved October 3, International Texas Longhorn Association. Archived from the original on May 11, Retrieved June 23, September 12, Archived from the original PDF on June 25, The Biology of Animal Stress. Retrieved January 28, Adams Media Corp. Of course, dogs sweat.

You would, too, if you had to wear a fur coat in hot weather. Dogs excrete moisture through the pads on their paws. Archived from the original on The New York Times. Live Science. Retrieved 28 January That Could Save Their Lives". New Scientist. Retrieved November 11, August 19, Retrieved August 29, November Retrieved January 7, Wolves do not howl at the moon".

Retrieved 25 September Accessed 15 September Routledge Dictionaries. Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge. Retrieved 29 June In the beginning: the story of the King James Bible and how it changed a nation, a language and a culture.

Finding the King of the Corporate Jungle: A Leadership Fable Finding the King of the Corporate Jungle: A Leadership Fable
Finding the King of the Corporate Jungle: A Leadership Fable Finding the King of the Corporate Jungle: A Leadership Fable
Finding the King of the Corporate Jungle: A Leadership Fable Finding the King of the Corporate Jungle: A Leadership Fable
Finding the King of the Corporate Jungle: A Leadership Fable Finding the King of the Corporate Jungle: A Leadership Fable
Finding the King of the Corporate Jungle: A Leadership Fable Finding the King of the Corporate Jungle: A Leadership Fable
Finding the King of the Corporate Jungle: A Leadership Fable Finding the King of the Corporate Jungle: A Leadership Fable
Finding the King of the Corporate Jungle: A Leadership Fable Finding the King of the Corporate Jungle: A Leadership Fable

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