In coastal areas, the biological effect of these changes has been an increase in the frequency of monospecific phytoplankton blooms, with diatom bloom frequency increasing by a factor of 2. The non-diatoms, such as the prymnesiophytes Emiliania huxleyi coccolithophore , Chromulina sp.
The decline in macrophytes was further compounded by overfishing during the s, while the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis reduced the biomass of copepods and other zooplankton in the late s. Additionally, an alien species—the warty comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi —was able to establish itself in the basin, exploding from a few individuals to an estimated biomass of one billion metric tons. In central Black Sea waters, Si levels were also significantly reduced, due to a decrease in the flux of Si associated with advection across isopycnal surfaces.
This phenomenon demonstrates the potential for localised alterations in Black Sea nutrient input to have basin-wide effects. Pollution reduction and regulation efforts have led to a partial recovery of the Black Sea ecosystem during the s, and an EU monitoring exercise, 'EROS21', revealed decreased N and P values, relative to the peak.
Mnemiopsis leidyi populations have been checked with the arrival of another alien species which feeds on them. Hermit crab , Diogenes pugilator. Black Sea Common Dolphins with a kite-surfer off Sochi. In the past, the range of the Asiatic lion extended from South Asia to the Balkans , possibly up to the Danube. Places like Turkey and the Trans-Caucasus were in this range. The Caspian tiger occurred in eastern Turkey and the Caucasus , at least. The lyuti zver Old East Slavic for "fierce animal" that was encountered by Vladimir II Monomakh , Velikiy Kniaz of Kievan Rus' which ranged to the Black Sea in the south ,  may have been a tiger or leopard , rather than a wolf or lynx , due to the way it behaved towards him and his horse.
Short-term climatic variation in the Black Sea region is significantly influenced by the operation of the North Atlantic oscillation , the climatic mechanisms resulting from the interaction between the north Atlantic and mid-latitude air masses. The relative strength of these systems also limits the amount of cold air arriving from northern regions during winter. There is also evidence that water levels in the Black Sea were considerably lower at some point during the post-glacial period.
Some researchers theorize that the Black Sea had been a landlocked freshwater lake at least in upper layers during the last glaciation and for some time after. In the aftermath of the last glacial period, water levels in the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea rose independently until they were high enough to exchange water. The exact timeline of this development is still subject to debate.
One possibility is that the Black Sea filled first, with excess fresh water flowing over the Bosphorus sill and eventually into the Mediterranean Sea. The hypothesis was headlined when The New York Times published it in December , shortly before it was published in an academic journal. Relevant to the hypothesis is that its description has led some to connect this catastrophe with prehistoric flood myths.
The Black Sea was a busy waterway on the crossroads of the ancient world: the Balkans to the west, the Eurasian steppes to the north, Caucasus and Central Asia to the east, Asia Minor and Mesopotamia to the south, and Greece to the south-west. The oldest processed gold in the world was found in Varna , Bulgaria, and the Black Sea was supposedly sailed by the Argonauts.
The land at the eastern end of the Black Sea, Colchis , now Georgia , marked for the Greeks the edge of the known world. The steppes to the north of the Black Sea have been suggested as the original homeland Urheimat of the speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language , PIE the progenitor of the Indo-European language family, by some scholars such as Marija Gimbutas ; others move the heartland further east towards the Caspian Sea , yet others to Anatolia.
The Black Sea became an Ottoman Navy lake within five years of Genoa losing the Crimean Peninsula in , after which the only Western merchant vessels to sail its waters were those of Venice 's old rival Ragusa. This restriction was gradually changed by the Russian Navy from until the relaxation of export controls in because of the French Revolution.
Ancient trade routes in the region are currently [ when? Perhaps the most promising areas in deepwater archaeology are the quest for submerged prehistoric settlements in the continental shelf and for ancient shipwrecks in the anoxic zone, which are expected to be exceptionally well preserved due to the absence of oxygen. This concentration of historical powers , combined with the preservative qualities of the deep anoxic waters of the Black Sea, has attracted increased interest from marine archaeologists who have begun to discover a large number of ancient ships and organic remains in a high state of preservation.
According to NATO, the Black sea is a strategic corridor that provides smuggling channels for moving legal and illegal goods including drugs, radioactive materials, and counterfeit goods that can be used to finance terrorism. According to the International Transport Workers' Federation study, there were at least 30 operating merchant seaports in the Black Sea including at least 12 in Ukraine.
According to the International Transport Workers' Federation study, there were around 2, commercial vessels operating in the Black Sea.
Anchovy : the Turkish commercial fishing fleet catches around , tons per year on average, and fishery carried out mainly in winter and the highest portion of the stock is caught between November and December. Since the s, the Soviet Union started offshore drilling for petroleum in the sea's western portion adjoining Ukraine 's coast.
The independent Ukraine continued and intensified that effort within its exclusive economic zone , inviting major international oil companies for exploration. Discovery of the new, massive oilfields in the area stimulated an influx of foreign investments. It also provoked a short-term peaceful territorial dispute with Romania which was resolved in by an international court redefining the exclusive economic zones between the two countries. In the years following the end of the Cold War , the popularity of the Black Sea as a tourist destination steadily increased. Tourism at Black Sea resorts became one of the region's growth industries.
The Montreux Convention provides for a free passage of civilian ships between the international waters of the Black and the Mediterranean Seas. However, a single country Turkey has a complete control over the straits connecting the two seas. Military ships are separate category from civilian ships and they can only pass through the straits if the ship is belonging to a Black Sea power. Other military ships have the right to pass through the straits if they are not in war against Turkey and they can stay in the Black Sea basin for a limited period of time.
The amendments to the Montreux Convention allow Turkey to close the Straits at its discretion in both wartime and peacetime. The Montreux Convention governs the passage of vessels between the Black,the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas and the presence of military vessels belonging to non- littoral states in the Black Sea waters. In December , the Kerch Strait incident took place. The Russian Navy and Coast guard took control of three ships belonging to their counterparts.
The ships were trying to enter the Black Sea . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Black Sea disambiguation. For the town of ancient Caria, see Euxine Caria. This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: Single sentence paragraphs in lead, among many other issues.
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Beneath the Black Water: The Search for an Ancient Fish by Jon Berry
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